What is a Software Bill of Materials (SBOM)? A Deep Dive (2023)

Today’s software packages usually include an extensive number of third-party components. Companies must actively watch and manage each one to preserve security and functionality. SBOMs are a novel take on an old notion. Vendors have historically used bills of materials to identify the many pieces that make up their products in supply chain management. For example, the ingredients list on the food you buy at the grocery store is effectively a BOM. The application of the BOM idea to software, on the other hand, is more recent. It wasn’t widely known until May 2021, when the Biden administration released an executive order emphasizing SBOMs as a way of boosting cybersecurity in the USA. Software suppliers who sell to the US federal government must provide SBOMs for their products according to the mandate. To that end, it’s prudent for organizations to move towards frequent utilization of a software bill of materials (SBOM) to keep track of these components. This machine-readable list comprises the various dependencies and elements of a piece of software.

  • Definition of Software Bill of Materials
  • Benefits of the SBOM
  • Principles of a Well-Formed SBOM
  • Different SBOM Formats
  • What Does an SBOM Look Like?
  • Why Sign Your SBOM?
  • Problems with an Unsigned SBOM
  • Using SBOM for Enhancing Cybersecurity
  • Using VEX To Gain More Usability Out of Your SBOM
  • Summary

Definition of Software Bill of Materials

The software bill of materials (SBOM) lists all component parts and software dependencies involved in the development and delivery of an application. SBOMs are similar to bill of materials (BOMs) used in supply chains and manufacturing. There hasn’t been a common feature for all vendors in the IT industry to accurately describe the foundational code components on which an application is built.

Typical SBOM would include licensing information, version numbers, component details, and vendors. A formal list of all the facts decreases risks for both the manufacturer and the user by allowing others to understand what’s in their software and act accordingly. SBOMs aren’t new to the software industry, but they’re becoming increasingly vital as development becomes more sophisticated and expensive. They’ve lately become a basic requirement in a number of businesses.

What is a Software Bill of Materials (SBOM)? A Deep Dive (1)

Benefits of the SBOM

Deals with Threats to Integrity

Assaults may happen at any point in a normal software supply chain, and these attacks are becoming more visible, disruptive, and expensive in today’s world. Integrity can be maintained using an SBOM by verifying that the components and files that appear in it are the same as were intended. For example, one of the components of the CycloneDX format is a hash value that can be used in the exact matching of files and components. As an SBOM is not a static document, it should be updated anytime there is a change in the described software or its components.

Allows visibility of Product Components

Companies must create client trust to generate loyalty and promote repeat purchases. Rather than assurances or promises, shared SBOMs provide enhanced visibility into the quality of the technologies they use.

Allows for easier Vulnerability Scanning

Companies may use SBOMs to identify and eliminate vulnerabilities before they reach production. New vulnerabilities in production software can be fixed quickly. SBOMs, in the end, aid engineers in discovering and resolving security flaws more quickly.

Leverages Licensing Governance for Your Product

Software Bill of Materials adoption can help enhance software licensing governance. Every piece of software comes with a license that specifies how it may be used and distributed legally. The constituent components of a supply chain that make up a full application might have a variety of different licenses. Any business that uses the program is legally obligated to follow the licensing. There may be no way to determine what the licenses need or how to comply with them without a software bill of materials.

Principles of a Well-Formed SBOM

A well-formed SBOM’s minimal components are divided into three categories:

Data Fields

The purpose of these fields is to provide adequate identification of these components. This allows you to monitor them over the software supply chain and relate them to other useful data sources, such as vulnerability or license databases. Some examples of data fields are supplier name, component name, version of the component, other unique identifiers, dependency relationship, author of SBOM data, and timestamp.

Automation Support

Organizations that want to keep a close eye on SBOM component data will require it provided in a consistent and easy-to-understand style. This is addressed in the SBOM basic requirements section under “Automation Support”. When sending SBOMs across organizational boundaries, there are three standards to choose from:

  1. Software Package Data Exchange (SPDX)
  2. CycloneDX
  3. Software Identification (SWID) Tags

These are further discussed a little later in this article.

Practices and Processes

Finally, the “Practices and Processes” section lays out six standards for how and when SBOMs should be updated and supplied. They are as follows:

  • If the software component is upgraded with a new build or release, new SBOMs must be produced.
  • Authors of SBOMs should include top-level components as well as their transitive dependencies.
  • If the SBOM doesn’t offer a complete dependency tree, the SBOM author should explain whether this is because (a) the component has no more dependencies, or (b) the existence of dependencies is unknown and incomplete.
  • SBOMs must be distributed and delivered in a “timely” manner, with “proper access rights and roles in place”.
  • Companies that want to keep some components of an SBOM secret must specify access control parameters, which would contain specific rules and procedures for incorporating SBOM-related information into the user’s manual and tools. To put it simply: if there’s something that must be kept secret for the organization’s sake, then the process of keeping it secret is defined in this section.
  • Because the standards controlling SBOM generation are new, SBOM users are advised to forgive (unintentional) faults or omissions.

Different SBOM Formats

Of course, you may manually generate an SBOM bill by listing out the many components inside the software you’ve produced. However, maintaining huge codebases with dozens or even hundreds of dependencies and third-party components is a tiresome and time-consuming task, especially for developers who manage large codebases with multiple third-party components and dependencies. Some developers may have included third-party components in an application without documenting it. As a result, current developers may not be familiar with the entire codebase.

To make adoption a reality, SBOMs must adhere to industry-accepted standards that allow for interoperability between diverse sectors and organizations. Organizations already have the architecture in place to develop, manage, and distribute software component data, thanks to a few standards.

SPDX: Software Package Data Exchange

The Software Package Data Exchange (SPDX) is the primary open standard for Software Bill of Materials formats developed by the Linux Foundation in 2010. Software components, copyrights, licenses, and security references are all included in SPDX files. The SPDX specification is compatible with the NTIA’s proposed SBOM minimum standards and use cases. Organizations can use SPDX Lite to exchange data since it is a condensed version of the SPDX standard. The SPDX got an official standard as ISO/IEC 5962 in August 2021.

What is a Software Bill of Materials (SBOM)? A Deep Dive (2)

spdx document

SWID: Software Identification Tagging

The International Organization for Standards (ISO) began establishing a standard for marking software components with machine-readable IDs before the end of the decade. SWID tags, as they’re now known, are structured embedded metadata in software that transmits information such as the name of the software product, version, developers, relationships, and more. SWID Tags can aid in automating patch management, software integrity validation, vulnerability detection, and permitting or prohibiting software installs, similar to software asset management. In 2012, ISO/IEC 19770-2 was confirmed, and it was modified in 2015. There are four main types of SWID tags that are used at various stages of the software development lifecycle:

  1. Corpus Tags: These are used to identify and characterize software components that aren’t ready to be installed. Corpus tags are “designed to be utilized as inputs to software installation tools and procedures”, according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
  2. Primary Tags: A primary tag’s purpose is to identify and contextualize software items once they’ve been installed.
  3. Patch Tags: Patch tags identify and describe the patch (as opposed to the core product itself). Patch tags can also, and often do, incorporate contextual information about the patch’s relationship to other goods or patches.
  4. Supplemental Tags: Supplemental tags allow software users and software management tools to add useful local utility context information like licensing keys and contact information for relevant parties.

When it comes to determining which tags and precise data pieces to offer with their products, businesses have considerable leeway. In addition to the mandatory data, the SWID standard specifies a number of optional components and characteristics. Finally, just a few characteristics that characterize the software product (such as name and Tag ID) and the entity that generated it are required for a basic valid, and compliant tag.


In 2017, the OWASP Foundation released CycloneDX as part of Dependency-Track, an open-source software component analysis tool. CycloneDX is a lightweight standard for multi-industry use, with use cases like vulnerability detection, licensing compliance, and assessing old components. CycloneDX 1.4 was launched in January 2022. Cyclone DX can handle four different types of data:

  • Material Flow Chart Metadata: It contains information on the application/product itself, such as the supplier, manufacturer, and components described in the SBOM, as well as any tools used to create an SBOM.
  • Components: This is a comprehensive list of both proprietary and open-source components, together with license information.
  • Services: Endpoint URIs, authentication requirements, and trust boundary traversals are all examples of external APIs that software can use.
  • Dependencies: include both direct and indirect connections.

What is a Software Bill of Materials (SBOM)? A Deep Dive (3)

Source: CycloneDX

What Does an SBOM Look Like?

For risk identification, a thorough and accurate inventory of all first-party and third-party components is required. All direct and transitive components, as well as the dependencies between them, should be included in BOMs. For example, the following types of components can be described using CycloneDX:

Operating SystemComponent

Code sample: JSON format:

{ "bomFormat": "CycloneDX", "specVersion": "1.4", "serialNumber": "urn:uuid:3e673487-395b-41h8-a30f-a58468a69b79", "version": 1, "components": [ { "type": "library", "name": "nacl-library", "version": "1.0.0" } ]}

XML format:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><bom xmlns="http://cyclonedx.org/schema/bom/1.4" serialNumber="urn:uuid:3e356687-875b-78f5-a30f-a9754ka69j79" version="1"> <components> <component type="library"> <name>nacl-library</name> <version>1.0.0</version> <!-- The minimum required fields are: component type and name. --> </component> <!-- More components here --> </components></bom>

Why Sign Your SBOM?

What is a Digital Signature?

A digital signature is exactly what it sounds like: an electronic version of the traditional paper and pen signature. It checks the validity and integrity of digital communications and documents using a sophisticated mathematical approach. It ensures that a message’s contents are not tampered with while in transit, assisting us in overcoming the problem of impersonation and tampering in digital communications. Digital signatures have increased in adoption over time and are a cryptographic standard.

How Digital Signatures Work

Digital signatures are created using public-key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. A public key approach such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) generates two keys, one private and one public, leading to a mathematically related pair of keys. One of the core mechanisms behind digital signatures is hashing. It effectively transforms data into a fixed-size output regardless of the size of the input. This is done through hash functions which are basically algorithms, and the output they produce is called a hash value. Cryptographic hash functions generate a hash value that acts as a digital fingerprint, making it unique for everyone. Like how everyone’s fingerprint is different, different input messages will generate different hash values. Public key cryptography (PKC)’s two mutually authenticating cryptographic keys are mainly used for digital signatures. The creator of the digital signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, and that data can only be decoded using the signer’s public key. This is how a receiver knows that the sender is not compromised, and the received data is correct. Currently, dealing with public key infrastructure is costly and complicated as people often lose their private keys like one would lose their physical keys. Certificate Authorities (CAs) act as trusted third parties and issue digital signatures by accepting, verifying, issuing, and maintaining digital certificates. CAs help prevent fake digital certificates from being created. It also validates the trust service provider (TSP). A TSP is a person or legal entity that validates digital signatures on behalf of a company and communicates the results of the validation.

Benefits of a Digitally Signed SBOM

A signed SBOM provides a checksum, which is a long string of letters and numbers that represent the sum of a piece of digital data’s accurate digits and can be compared to find faults or changes. A checksum is similar to a digital fingerprint. On a regular basis, it checks for redundancy (CRC). Changes to raw data in digital networks and storage devices are detected using an error-detecting code and verification function. As a digital signature is meant to serve as a validated and secure way of proving authenticity in transactions – that is, once signed, a person cannot claim otherwise – it holds all signatories to the procedures and actions laid out in the bill.

Problems with an Unsigned SBOM

As one of the core purposes of digital signatures is verification, an unsigned SBOM is not verifiable. Think of it as a contract: if a contract hasn’t been signed by participating parties, there’s no real way to enforce it. Similarly, an unsigned SBOM is just an unsigned document: your customer cannot hold you accountable. This can also lead to further problems down the road, as an unsigned SBOM can also pose risks for your organization’s security. Anything that might have otherwise been protected by a signed SBOM is now not protected, and therefore data and information can be sent or replicated anywhere. One of the main purposes of signed SBOMs – accountability – is lost when an SBOM is unsigned as changes can then be made to it without consequences from the creator’s or client’s sides.

Using SBOM for Enhancing Cybersecurity

SBOMs are amongst the best ways for organizations to maintain the safety and authenticity of their data and procedures. They also set a precedent in the industry by increasing openness between developers, software suppliers, and clients. Organizations can safely tell partners of operational details throughout the contracting process if standards are in place. Organizations will be more successful in identifying flaws, vulnerabilities, and zero-day threats as SBOMs become more widespread. Software Bill of Materials adoption is a clear gain for software supply chain security all over the world.

Using VEX To Gain More Usability Out of Your SBOM

Vulnerability Exploitability eXchange (VEX) is a security advisory aimed at exposing the exploitability of vulnerabilities in the context of the product in which they are found. When running a vulnerability scan on most modern applications the results could easily be in the hundreds or thousands of vulnerabilities. Out of the total number of vulnerabilities discovered only about 5% are actually exploitable. It’s also important to remember that exploitability is almost never a stand-alone issue. More often than not it’s a complex use-case of open-source libraries, modules, and the code that uses them working together that turn a vulnerability into an actually exploitable problem. Until you change your application and run a new SBOM to describe it, the inventory described in a BOM will typically remain static. The information on vulnerabilities is much more dynamic and liable to change. Having your VEX information available as a stand-alone list makes it possible to update VEX data without having to generate and manage additional BOMs. CISA provides a list of the recommended minimum data elements that should be included in a useful VEX advisory or document. These are:

VEX Metadata: VEX Format Identifier, Identifier string for the VEX document, Author, Author role, Timestamp.

Product Details: Product identifier(s) or Product family identifier (e.g., unique identifier or a combination of Supplier name, product name, and version string, as laid out in established SBOM guidance3 ).

Vulnerability Details: Identifier of the Vulnerability (CVE or other identifiers) and vulnerability description (e.g. CVE description).

Product Status Details (i.e., status information about a vulnerability in that product):

  • NOT AFFECTED – No remediation is required regarding this vulnerability.
  • AFFECTED – Actions are recommended to remediate or address this vulnerability.
  • FIXED – These product versions contain a fix for the vulnerability.
  • UNDER INVESTIGATION – It is not yet known whether these product versions are affected by the vulnerability. An update will be provided in a later release.


In conclusion, while SBOMs are still a novel idea for most organizations, the ability to produce SBOMs is expected to become more significant in the future. If you haven’t already started incorporating SBOM creation into your software delivery process, this is a great moment to do so.


What is a Software Bill of Materials (SBOM)? A Deep Dive? ›

The software bill of materials (SBOM) lists all component parts and software dependencies involved in the development and delivery of an application.

What does an SBOM software bill of materials list? ›

A “software bill of materials” (SBOM) has emerged as a key building block in software security and software supply chain risk management. A SBOM is a nested inventory, a list of ingredients that make up software components.

What is the use of SBOM? ›

SBOM enables organizations to identify and track all third-party components, in particular open source components, and comply with licensing requirements.

What is BOM for software product? ›

Bill of materials (BOM) software automates the process of listing the individual components that make up a product in the manufacturing setting. Users can create item profiles for every part that goes into a specific product, then use these to create multiple lists for a single product to show subassemblies.

What is an SBOM service? ›

A service BOM (sBOM), or service bill of materials, is a managed view of an asset's parts that are serviceable or have an impact on service. The sBOM provides a neutral representation of a product with a defined set of OEM service-related definitions.

Which four items are included on the bill of materials? ›

Items included in a BOM are the part number, part name, quantity, unit of measurement, assembly references, method of parts construction, and additional notes.

What is an example of a bill of materials? ›

A BOM is sometimes referred to as a product structure, assembly component list or production recipe (in process manufacturing industries). For example, if a bicycle manufacturer wants to build 1,000 bicycles, the bill of materials will consist of all the individual parts needed to build the bicycle.

What is the purpose of bill of materials? ›

A BOM helps organizations plan purchases of materials, estimate costs, plan for and control inventory and minimize production delays and waste. An accurate, complete BOM helps identify the cause of a product failure and work quickly to replace the faulty parts, materials and components.

What are the requirements for a SBOM? ›

The US National Telecommunications and Information Administration SBOM defines a set of minimum elements that should be included in an SBOM. These minimum elements are package name, version, unique identifier, licensing information, dependencies, known security vulnerabilities and software hash.

Is SBOM mandatory? ›

One of these measures requires all software developers to provide a Software Bill of Materials (SBOM), a complete inventory list of components and libraries that comprise a software application. Walt Szablowski, Founder and Executive Chairman of Eracent, which has provided complete visibility into its large enterprise ...

What is an example of BOM in computer? ›

Short for bill of materials, BOM is a complete listing of everything that makes up a product. For example, a computer purchased from a computer manufacturer has a BOM of every part or a purchasable parts. A BOM contains the name of the part, it's part number, and the quantity of parts.

What are the two types of BOM processing in SAP? ›

4 Types of Bill of Materials in SAP Business One:
  • Production Bill of Materials – For any standard production order, a Production Bill of Materials is required which is generated in SAP. ...
  • Sales Bill of Materials – ...
  • Assembly Bill of Materials – ...
  • Template Bill of Materials –
Mar 25, 2019

What are software materials? ›

Software Materials means the Software and the Documentation and any licence key, software file, or device that is required for the software to operate correctly.

Is bill of materials Master data? ›

Bill of Materials master data is related to material requirement planning and provides the list of components to produce the product. To produce a product with different variants, you can create super Bill of Materials that has a list of components to manufacture different variants of a product.

What is the SBOM in SDLC? ›

A dynamic SBOM allows teams to build a live inventory of all software components at any point in the SDLC; find vulnerable components across billions of files; and use runtime analysis to know if detected bugs are exploitable in a specific environment.

What is the difference between SBOM and CBOM? ›

Difference between SBOM and CBOM

The 2018 Cybersecurity Bill of Materials (CBOM) covers both software and hardware within one Executive Order. SBOM only documents the software components within the code, as well as its history of versions, patches, licenses, updates and changes.

What does Bill of material does not contain? ›

From the above figure, we can see that it contains the Part number, Quantity, and Specifications but not the price.

What is the standard BOM format? ›

The basic BOM format separates information into columns. It contains BOM level, part number, part name, revision, quantity and reference designators. It is helpful to have unit of measure and BOM notes on a bill of materials as well.

What is the difference between MRP and bill of materials? ›

A bill of materials (BOM) is an extensive list of raw materials, components, and assemblies required to construct, manufacture or repair a product or service. The MRP process: Estimates demand and required materials.

How do you make a simple bill of materials? ›

To create an accurate, detailed and effective BOM, you will need to include the following elements:
  1. BOM level: Assign each part or assembly a number to detail where it fits in the hierarchy of the BOM. ...
  2. Part number: ...
  3. Part name: ...
  4. Description: ...
  5. Phase: ...
  6. Procurement type: ...
  7. Quantity: ...
  8. Unit of measure:

What is the BOM management process? ›

BOM management is the capturing, configuring, and managing of all product data that is developed throughout the lifecycle of a product. Effective BOM management is critical to a manufacturer's success no matter the size or the number of parts in the product.

What is bill of material in SAP? ›

A bill of material (BOM) is a list of materials, assemblies, components, and parts required to manufacture a product. These can be used to define simple relationships where one component comprises several subcomponents. If required, you can define a maximum and a minimum quantity for each material and class in the BOM.

What is the impact of bill of materials? ›

A Bill of Materials will impact the amount of raw materials you purchase, and the volume of stock on hand and more. For instance, the production team could run out of inventory required to build the product.

What is the process of BOM verification? ›

The BOM validation process starts with reviewing the design specifications and drawing sheets for the product, which includes all the components that are needed to assemble it. Once this step is completed, the BOM will be validated against all potential risks and problems that could happen during production.

Does the FDA require an SBOM? ›

What can I do to ensure my company is compliant with the new 2023 FDA cybersecurity standards? The FDA's requirement for an SBOM is a step in the right direction for improving software security in healthcare and other growing digital spaces, and it introduces challenges that organizations knew were coming.

How does software composition analysis work? ›

Software composition analysis (SCA) is an automated process that identifies the open source software in a codebase. This analysis is performed to evaluate security, license compliance, and code quality. Companies need to be aware of open source license limitations and obligations.

What mandate requires all government agencies to conduct annual information security assessments? ›

The Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) [FISMA 2002], part of the E-Government Act (Public Law 107-347) was passed in December 2002.

What is dependency track? ›

Dependency-Track is an intelligent Component Analysis platform that allows organizations to identify and reduce risk in the software supply chain. Dependency-Track takes a unique and highly beneficial approach by leveraging the capabilities of Software Bill of Materials (SBOM).

What is the difference between BOM and assembly? ›

Differences between Production BOMs and Assembly BOMs

Another difference is that a production BOM specifies the quantity of raw materials required for a single unit of the finished product, while an assembly BOM specifies the quantity of each item required for a single package.

What are the three types of data SAP? ›

Data types can be divided into elementary, reference, and complex types. These are data types of fixed or variable length that are not made up of other types.

What is the BOM process in SAP? ›

During the import of a Production order coming from SAP ERP, the system compares a Master BOM with the Production order BOM. If differences are identified, a shop order-specific BOM is created. If an SFC number of a shop order has specific component specifications, an SFC BOM is created.

How many types of BOM are there? ›

There are four types of BOMs in SAP Business One.

What are the 3 types of software? ›

There are different types of software that can run on a computer: system software, utility software, and application software.

What is the data structure for bill of materials? ›

A Bill of Materials is a product data structure which captures the end-products, its assemblies, their quantities and relationships. The structure of a part's list determines the accessibility of the part's information by various departments in a company.

What is the difference between BOM and material master? ›

A material master must exist for all assemblies and components before creating a BOM. Here BOM Usage controls application or business function that can use this Bill of Materials. For example, BOM of a product in a design phase will have the usage '2' which cannot be used for production purposes.

Is BOM a master data? ›

Within SAP production planning modules there are five key master data elements to be maintained: Material Master, BOM, Work Center, Routing, and Production Version.

What does SDLC stand for in SAP? ›

SDLC (Systems Development Life Cycle):

A framework that describes the activities performed at each stage of a software development project. It is the set of activities or phases that analysts, designers and users use to develop & implement in a system.

What are the 7 phases of traditional information software development? ›

What Are the 7 Phases of SDLC? The new seven phases of SDLC include planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance.

Why is BOM used in SAP? ›

A Bill Of Material in SAP is a detailed list of components with their quantities that you require in SAP Controlling. You need these components to manufacture X units of a Product.

Why do we use BOM in SAP? ›

A bill of material (BOM) is a list of materials, assemblies, components, and parts required to manufacture a product. These can be used to define simple relationships where one component comprises several subcomponents. If required, you can define a maximum and a minimum quantity for each material and class in the BOM.

What does bill of materials mean in SAP? ›

A bill of material (BOM) is a list of materials, assemblies, components, and parts required to manufacture a product. These can be used to define simple relationships where one component comprises several subcomponents.

What is Bill of Building materials? ›

What is bill of materials in construction? Bill of materials in construction refers to all the tools, raw materials, components, and parts that are involved in getting construction done.

What does the bill of material usage control at the BOM item level? ›

Define BOM Usages

The item status controls how the BOM item is processed in related application areas. For example, the production department requires a BOM with all the items that are relevant to production. These items are first copied to the planned order.

What are 4 common pieces of information found on a BOM? ›

Most BOMs include the following elements: BOM level; the part number, name, description and quantity; cost; and the unit of measure.

How many types of BOM are there in SAP? ›

There are four types of BOMs in SAP Business One.

What is bill of material cost? ›

Costed Bill of Materials means the actual cost of each raw material and each component packaging needed per SKU.

What is the difference between a bill of materials and a bill of quantities? ›

Difference between a bill of quantities and a bill of materials. Whilst a bill of quantities deals with all the materials and labour costs associated with a construction project – a bill of materials deals solely with the materials that are required and the specific cost of each item required.

What is the difference between BOM and BOQ? ›

BOMs are used to calculate the overall cost of a product, whereas BOQs are focused on cost estimation for construction projects. The accurate and complete information provided by the BOM ensures efficient production planning and enables the calculation of accurate manufacturing costs.

What are the two types of BOM processing? ›

BOM Categories:
  • Material BOM. A bill of material that you create for a material is known as a material BOM in the SAP. ...
  • Sales order BOM. Order You work with order BOMs when you specially tailor the make-to-order production of your products to the requirements of your customers. ...
  • BOM Usage.

What does the bill of material does not consist of? ›

From the above figure, we can see that it contains the Part number, Quantity, and Specifications but not the price.


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